Paula Skedsvold

Open Letter to NIH Director Francis Collins

Paula Skedsvold
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Francis Collins, MD, PhD
National Institutes of Health
Bethesda, MD 20892

Dear Dr. Collins:

We are writing to request that NIH delay implementation of its policy that sweeps basic science into a clinical trials framework until adequate feedback about its impact is obtained from the affected scientific community. We wholeheartedly agree with NIH’s goals of increasing scientific transparency and rigor, but we ask that you consider alternative mechanisms to accomplish those goals that would have fewer adverse effects on basic research.

The mission of National Institutes of Health is to fund a wide range of health related research. Some of this research consists of clinical trials: testing the effects of interventions that could be developed into treatments for improving health. Clinical trials are the key method for establishing the efficacy, and safety, of potential new treatments. The NIH also funds, as part of its mandate, basic discovery science on health-related topics. Basic discovery science tests hypotheses about how human minds and bodies work. History shows that basic science is necessary: the discoveries made by the basic science of today provide the foundation for the clinical trials of tomorrow. New treatments can only be invented on the basis of new knowledge about how the mind and body work.

The NIH’s interpretation of its definition of “clinical trials” is so broad that many experiments designed to test hypotheses about how the mind and body work will be inappropriately classified as clinical trials. The negative impact of the new policy is substantial:

  • Basic scientists whose research is now deemed a “clinical trial” may only submit applications for funding through a funding opportunity announcement designated specifically for clinical trials, even though other funding vehicles are more appropriate;
  • The basic research studies now classified as “clinical trials” will be reviewed by study sections constituted for clinical trial review and would need to be significantly reconstituted to handle discovery science;
  • Training grants cannot be used to fund “clinical trials,” so basic research involving humans will be ineligible for T-awards;
  • Exploratory research, which is the lifeblood of discovery, would be hampered. If exploratory research could be registered at all, such registration is likely to slow the pace of research, impeding innovation and discovery;
  • The new policies unnecessarily increase the administrative burden on investigators, and this burden will fall disproportionately on researchers at less well-funded universities and colleges, which have fewer administrative resources to help; and,
  • Members of the public who seek information in will find a potentially confusing array of basic science experiments that are not in the clinical trial stage.

We understand that a motivation for this change is to increase transparency and replicability in NIH funded research. We strongly applaud this motivation. Indeed, many of the undersigned are actively involved in scientist-led efforts to increase replicability and transparency. Examples include the Open Science Framework (OSF), and OpenfMRI. And other efforts to increase transparency are underway, both inside and outside government. NIH has also helped to increase data sharing in the NIMH data archive. And scientists are currently developing mechanisms for more sharing of code as well. We encourage (and applaud the NIH for encouraging) pre-registration, data sharing, protocol sharing, and code sharing.

We support the goals of transparency and replicability. Unfortunately, the current effort to improve transparency and replicability in basic science does so by mislabeling basic research as a clinical trial.

In our view, NIH could easily transform a policy that is harmful to basic science researchers into one that will do no harm and yet increase the transparency and accountability for all of the research it funds, but in parallel tracks.

We respectfully request that you:

  • Affirm that health-related discovery science is an important part of the NIH research portfolio that enables us to build a foundation of fundamental knowledge that will be needed, in time, to design clinical trials.
  • Take this opportunity to invite to NIH representatives from affected basic research communities, listen to the concerns raised, and work with us to shape a policy for this important segment of NIH grantees; and,
  • Specifically develop a protocol for promoting transparency and replicability based on input from the basic science community. A new protocol could be based on existing efforts such as OSF and OpenfMRI.


Jeremy Wolfe, Brigham and Women's Hospital / Harvard Med

Nancy Kanwisher, MIT

Rebecca Saxe, MIT

Ken Norman, Princeton University

Adina Roskies, Dartmouth College

David Badre, Brown University

William Heindel, Brown University

James DiCarlo, MIT

Daniel Schacter, Harvard University

Marlene Behrmann, Carnegie Mellon University

Richard Aslin, Haskins Laboratories

David Plaut, Professor, Carnegie Mellon University

Kody Manke, Professor

Dwight Kravitz, The George Washington University

Jack Gallant, University of California at Berkeley

Russell Poldrack, Stanford University

Benjamin Backus, Graduate Center for Vision Research, SUNY College of Optometry

Kasey Creswell, Carnegie Mellon University

Samuel Norman-Haignere, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Luke Hyde, University of Michigan

Brock Kirwan, Brigham Young University

Sarah Shomstein, George Washington University

Edward Vogel, University of Chicago

Jennifer Beer, University of Texas at Austin

Molly Crockett, Yale University

Jay Van Bavel, New York University

Aidan Wright, University of Pittsburgh

Breana Carter, George Washington University

Tyler Davis, Texas Tech University

Frank Keil, Yale University

Eran Dayan, UNC-CH

Allyson Mackey, University of Pennsylvania

Scott Huettel, Duke University

Samuel Gershman, Harvard University

Edward Awh, University of Chicago

Samuel Mehr, Harvard University

Wm Wren Stine, University of New Hampshire

Mike Angstadt, University of Michigan

Simon W Davis, Duke University

adele diamond, Univ. of British Columbia (UBC)

Brian Wandell, Stanford University

Claire Morrison, University of Michigan

Robert Desimone, MIT

Elizabeth Phelps, New York University

Jordan Grafman, Northwestern University

Robert Sekuler, Brandeis University

Elika Bergelson, Duke University

Chunyue Teng, The George Washington University

Evelina Fedorenko, MIT; HMS/MGH

Stephen Adamo, Postdoctoral Researcher

Jochen Weber, Columbia University

Bradley R Postle, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Deborah Hannula, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

Kevin LaBar, Duke University

Rosie Cowell, University of Massachusetts Amherst

Leigh Goetschius, University of Michigan

Edward Ester, Florida Atlantic University

Charan Ranganath, University of California at Davis

Amitai Shenhav, Brown University

Daniel Willingham, University of Virginia

Alex Shackman, University of Maryland

Alison Preston, The University of Texas at Austin

Hailey Dotterer, University of Michigan

Ennio Mingolla, Northeastern University

Diana Tamir, Princeton University

John Wixted, UC San Diego

Scott Lilienfeld, Emory University

Vishnu P Murty, University of Pittsburgh

Melissa Kline, MIT

Michael Frank, Stanford University

Matthew Walker, UC Berkeley

Taylor Stephan, University of Michigan

Michael Rugg, UT Dallas

Ben Deen, Rockefeller University

Rachel Diana, Virginia Tech

Preston Thakral, Harvard University

Hilary Richardson, MIT

Anna Schapiro, Harvard Medical School

Ione Fine, University of Washington

Jonathan Victor, Weill Medical College

Mingbo Cai, Princeton University

Eric Schumacher, Georgia Institute of Technology

Bharath Chandrasekaran, Associate Professor

Jessica Church-Lang, The University of Texas at Austin

Howard Egeth, Johns Hopkins University

Megan deBettencourt, University of Chicago

David Schnyer, University of Texas

Shuo Wang, WVU

Jonathan Phillips, Harvard University

Emily Garnett, University of Michigan

Mina Cikara, Harvard University

Kristen Stauffer, University of Michigan

Alfonso Caramazza, Harvard University

Alejandro Lleras, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Brian Allen, University of Washington biomedical researcher

Cary Savage, Banner University Health

Ryan Ly, Princeton University

Alexander Dufford, University of Denver

Lauretta Reeves, University of Texas at Austin

Eric Donny, University of Pittsburgh

Steven Pinker, Harvard University

Lindsey Powell, MIT

Sara Weisenbach, University of Utah

Robert Siegler, Carnegie Mellon University

Timothy Rogers, University of Wisconsin Madison

Stephen Engel, University of Minnesota

Shreesh Mysore, Johns Hopkins University

Regan Bernhard, Harvard University

Justin Hulbert, Bard College

Andrew Oxenham, University of Minnesota

Stefano Anzellotti, MIT

Arne D Ekstrom, UC Davis

Paul Bloom, Yale

Josh McDermott, MIT

Robert C Welsh, University of Utah, Department of Psychiatry

Dima Amso, Brown University

Emily Falk, University of Pennsylvania

Michael Kalish, Syracuse university

Julia Leonard, MIT

Jasper Hajonides van der Meulen, Princeton university

Kyle Dillon, Harvard University

Maureen Ritchey, Boston College

James Antony, Princeton University

Sean Dae Houlihan, MIT

Jeffrey Lees, Harvard University

Alexandra Burt, Michigan State University

Christine Larson, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Ariel Rokem, The University of Washington

Camila Caballero, Yale

Avram Holmes, Yale University

Cathleen Moore, University of Iowa

James Morgan, Brown University

Steve Chang, Yale University

Katy Thakkar, Michigan State University

Craig Stark, University of California Irvine

Tyler Perrachione, Boston University

Charles Chubb, UC Irvine, Dept of Cognitive Sciences

Christopher Honey, Johns Hopkins University

Simona Lleras Buetti, University of Illinois

Caroline Robertson, MIT

Abigail Novick, Princeton University

David J Heeger, New York University

Simona Ghetti, University of California, Davis

Joel Voss, Northwestern University

Jenny Saffran, University of Wisconsin - Madison

Alexander Kale, University of Washington

Caren Rotello, University of Massachusetts

Jonathan Peelle, Washington University in Saint Louis

Garraux, Liege University

Lucina Uddin, University of Miami

Brooks King-Casas, Virginia Tech

Mallory Feldman, Northeastern University

Kalanit Grill-Spector, Stanford University

Brendan Colson, University of Chicago

Eren Gunseli, University of Chicago

Sagi Jaffe-Dax, Princeton University

Joe McGuire, Boston University

Thorsten Kahnt, Northwestern University

Nicole Hakim, University of Chicago

Joseph Orr, Texas A&M University

Kristina Visscher, University of Alabama, Birmingham

James Li, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Manoj Kumar, Princeton University

RUYUAN ZHANG, University of Minnesota

Rajesh Kana, University of alabama at Birmingham

Justin Martin, Harvard University

Anna Docherty, University of Utah

Peter Kok, Yale University

Matthew Lieberman, UCLA

Matthew Goldrick, Northwestern University

Timothy Brady, UC San Diego

Sebastian Musslick, Princeton University

Lisanne Jenkins, Northwestern

Jillian Hardee, University of Michigan

Daniel R O'young, Northwestern University

Robbe Goris, UT Austin

Mariam Aly, Columbia University

Stephen, Texas A&M University

Cynthia Thompson, Northwestern University

Jesse Rissman, UCLA

Patrick Bissett, Stanford University

Stephen Maren, Texas A&M University

Michael Cohen, Northwestern University

Emma Satlof-Bedrick, University of Pittsburgh

Myeong-Ho Sohn, The George Washington University

Mollie Bayda, Center for Sleep and Cognition at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center / Harvard Medical School

Joseph Austerweil, University of Wisconsin - Madison

James R Coleman, Northeastern University

Alfredo Spagna, Department of Psychology, QC, CUNY

Julian De Freitas, Harvard University

Phil Johnson-Laird, Princeton University

Aaron Benjamin, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Jordan Manes, Northwestern University

Marc Coutanche, University of Pittsburgh

Jeremy Manning, Dartmouth College

Brendan Depue, University of Louisville

Cara Stepp, Boston University

Jan Wessel, University of Iowa

Daniel Hyde, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Lei Wang, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

Daniel Weissman, University of Michigan

Mark Thornton, Princeton University

Russell M Church, Brown University

Mark S Seidenberg, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Tessa Abagis, University of Michigan

CLAYTON CURTIS, New York University

John Plass, University of Michigan

Derin Cobia, Brigham Young University

John Serences, UC San Diego

Ben Huang, Weill Cornell Medical College

Shashi Kapadia, Weill Cornell Medicine

Caren Walker, University of California San Diego

Sara Cordes, Boston College

Nathaniel Daw, Princeton University

Jodie, University of Iowa

Rebekka Matheson, Brigham Young University

Raedy Ping, Northwestern University

Yarrow Dunham, Yale University

Dean Buonomano, UCLA

Sheila Krogh-Jespersen, DePaul University

Tyler Adkins, University of Michigan

Dave Kleinschmidt, Princeton Neuroscience University

Marjorie Rhodes, New York University

Rachel Barr, Georgetown University

Mikle D South, Brigham Young University

Alexandra Boehm, Graduate student researcher

Rosie Aboody, Yale University

Eliza, Bucknell University

Julie Schneider, University of Texas at Dallas

Christina Schonberg, UCLA

Elizabeth Brey, University of Hawaii-Manoa

Marieke van Heugten, SUNY Buffalo

Shawn D Gale PhD, Brigham Young University

Mehmet Agaoglu, UC Berkeley

Katherina Hauner, Northwestern University

Chris Lawson, UW-Milwaukee

Kara Federmeier, University of Illinois

Thad Polk, University of Michigan

John O'Doherty, California Institute of Technology

Elizabeth Spelke, Harvard University

Gabriel Diaz, Assistant Professor

Michael J Proulx, University of Bath

Brian P Schmidt, UC Berkeley

Deborah Kelemen, Boston University

Avniel Ghuman, University of Pittsburgh

Merranda McLaughlin, research technician

Lorella Battelli, Harvard Medical School

Melanie Killen, University of Maryland

Thomas Palmeri, Vanderbilt University

Jeffrey Johnson, University of Missouri

Yuyan Luo, University of Missouri

Susana Chung, UC Berkeley

Alex Bowers, Schepens Eye Research Institute, Mass Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School

Krista Bond, Carnegie Mellon University

Neil Garrett, Princeton Neuroscience Institute

Jacqueline Woolley, University of Texas

David J Lewkowicz, Northeastern University

Anna Papafragou, University of Delaware

Akira Omaki, University of Washington

Amanda Tarullo, Boston University

Dylan Gee, Yale University

Narges Afshordi, Harvard University

Kathryn Roecklein, University of Pittsburgh

Donna Bridge, Northwestern University

Jonathan F Kominsky, Harvard University

Beau Sievers, Dartmouth College

Thanasis Panorgias, New England College of Optometry

Vladimir Sloutsky, The Ohio State University

Virginia Tompkins, The Ohio State University

sarah banks, cleveland clinic

Stephen Sheinkopf, Brown University

Bart Farell, Syracuse University

Nicholas Minar, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School

Jane, University of Iowa

David Klahr, cmu

Erik Blaser, UMass Boston

James A Russell, Boston College

Geoffrey Boynton, University of Washington

Carmel Adie Levitan, Occidental College

Michael Sayette, University of Pittsburgh

Lea, University of Iowa

Alexis Elmore, University of Iowa

John Pezaris, Harvard Medical School

Naiqi Xiao, Princeton University

Alexandra Rosati, University of Michigan

Ella Striem-Amit, Harvard University

Noam Ringach, Stanford University

Jonathan Beier, University of Maryland, College Park

Maliki Ghossainy, The University of Texas

Makaela, Brigham & Women's Hospital

Jessica Dugan, Emory University

Rebecca Cutler, Vanderbilt University

Shaban Demirel, Legacy Health

Craig Smith, University of Michigan

Jason Haberman, Rhodes College

Leslie Rollins, Christopher Newport University

Chris Johnson, Dept of Ophthalmology, Univ of Iowa

Joao Guassi Moreira, University of California, Los Angeles

Leyre Castro, The University of Iowa

Chandan Vaidya, Georgetown University

Brian MacWhinney, Carnegie Mellon University

Caglar Tas, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Christopher Bowd, Hamilton Glaucoma Center of the Shiley Eye Institute, UC San Diego

John Walker, Northwestern University

Christina Zhao, University of Washington

Janine kwapis, UC Irvine

Jane Childers, Trinity University

Anna Fisher, Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Psychology

Christopher Monk, University of Michigan

Mitchell Brigell, Aerpio Therapeutics

Margaret O'Connell, University of Texas at Dallas

Wendy Suzuki, New York University

Elizabeth Redcay, University of Maryland

Melissa Farmer, Northwestern University

Danny Rahal, UCLA

Alice Adler, Schepens Eye Research Institute/ Massachusetts Eye & Ear

Donnah CANAVAN, Boston College

Michael J Kane, Dept of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Mingzhou Ding, University of Florida

Nathan Tardiff, University of Pennsylvania

Joseph Carroll, Medical College of Wisconsin

David Chester, Virginia Commonwealth University

Dan Denis, Harvard Medical School

Roberto Cabeza, Duke University

Inge-Marie Eigsti, University of Connecticut

ari bell, ucla

Kassandra Lee, Schepens Eye Research Institute, Harvard Med. School

Hayley Dorfman, Harvard University

Elissa Newport, Georgetown University

Emma Geller, UC San Diego

Rebecca Neel, University of Iowa

Michael A McDannald, Boston College

Zoe Liberman, University of California Santa Barbara

Krystel Huxlin, University of Rochester

Shu-Sha Guan, CSUN

Rhea Eskew, Northeastern University

Hyesung Grace Hwang, Washington University in St. Louis

Yoon Bai, UT Austin

Alan Leslie, Rutgers University

Tara Mandalaywala, New York University

Kelley Durkin, Vanderbilt University

C Shawn Green, University of Wisconsin

Garrett Swan, Schepens Eye Research Institute

Jennifer Hunter, University of Rochester

Qihong Lu, Princeton University

Jeffrey Taube, Dartmouth College

Laiah Factor, Indiana University

Adriana Galvan, UCLA

Tatiana Garcia-Meza, Virginia Tech

William Loftus, UCLA

Dan Levy, Harvard medical school

Richard T Born, Harvard Medical School

Laura Hennefield, Washington University School of Medicine

Miguel Eckstein, University of California Santa Barbra

Russell Epstein, University of Pennsylvania

Elizabeth Bonawitz, Rutgers University - Newark

Matthew Carlson, Penn State University

McKell Carter, University of Colorado

Jenny Wang, JHU

Frank H Durgin, Swarthmore College

Celia P Litovsky, Johns Hopkins University

Bria Long, Stanford University

Bonny Donzella, University of Minnesota

Robert Shapley, New York Unversity

Assaf Harel, Wright State University

Niv Reggev, Harvard University

Dan Rowe, Marquette University

Katherine Karlsgodt, UCLA

Jason Fischer, Johns Hopkins University

Diane Reckziegel, Northwesten University

Ben Hutchinson, Northeastern University

Thomas Talavage, Purdue University

Surendra Maharjan, Bir Hospital

Bob McMurray, University of Iowa

Griffin Koch, University of Pittsburgh

Amanda Guyer, UC Davis

Kathryn Bonnen, University of Texas at Austin

Emily Patterson, Medical College of Wisconsin

Anne Moskowitz, Boston Children's Hospital/Harvard Medical School

Gislin Dagnelie, Johns Hopkins University

Jodi Weinstein, Stony Brook University

Elizabeth E O'Neal, University of Iowa

Brad Wyble, Penn State University

Paul Glimcher, New York University

Emily Kappenman, San Diego State University

Jason Snyder, University of British Columbia

Zsuzsa Kaldy, UMass Boston

Mike Tyszka, Caltech

Yuhong Jiang, University of Minnesota

Daniel Joyce, Stanford University

Benjamin Rottman, University of Pittsburgh

Kirsten Adam, University of Chicago

Dennis Levi, UC Berkeley

Xiaoping hu, University of California riverside

Steven Buck, Dept. of Psychology, University of Washington

Gary H Glover, Stanford University Radiology Dept.

Michaela DeBolt, UC Davis

Joy Geng, University of California Davis

Christopher Gomez, University of Chicago

Rachel Linderman, Medical College of Wisconsin Graduate School

William Graves, Rutgers University -- Newark

Dianna Murray-Close, UVM

Martin Lindquist, Johns Hopkins University

Aria Wang, Carnegie Mellon University

Carina Hahn, The University of Texas at Dallas

Gennady Erlikhman, University of Nevada, Reno

Roland Griffiths, Johns Hopkins Medicine

Liane Young, Boston College

Russell Jackson, University of Idaho

Cedric Cannard, CNRS

Denise Park, University of Texas at Dallas

Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Duke University

Darlene Dartt, Harvard Medical School

Jun Hua, Johns Hopkins

Vilte Baliutaviciute, Schepens Eye Research Institute

Joel Quamme, Grand Valley State University

Yingqian Li, Schepens Eye Research Institute

nicole landi, University of Connecticut/ Haskins labs

Alexander L Francis, Purdue University

Trafton Drew, University of Utah

Anne Collins, UC Berkeley

Elissa Aminoff, Fordham University

Sharon Thompson-Schill, University of Pennsylvania

Yale Cohen, University of Pennsylvania

Mariel Kyger, UCLA

Delphine Dahan, University of Pennsylvania

Michelle Joyner, University of Michigan

Stephanie De Anda, University of Oregon

Eliana Colunga, University of Colorado Boulder

Raymond A Applegate, College of Optometry, University of Houston

Kelly Byrne, UC Berkeley

Aaron, Caltech

Beatriz Luna, University of Pittsburgh

Mahzarin Banaji, Harvard University

Mary Beth Nebel, Johns Hopkins University

Janice Chen, Johns Hopkins University

Alan Lewis, New England College of Optometry

Eve Isham, UC Davis

Rosa Lafer-Sousa, MIT

Summer Sheremata, Florida Atlantic University

Austin Marcus, Carnegie Mellon University

Marlene Meyer, University of Chicago

Maria Geffen, University of Pennsylvania

Margaret Friend, San Diego State University

Steve Haroz, Northwestern University

John Opfer, The Ohio State University

John Erik Vanston, University of Nevada, Reno

Jason Chein, Temple University

Dominic Cheng, Auburn University

Aude Oliva, MIT

Helene Intraub, University of Delaware

James Vernon Odom, West Virginia University

Joseph Kable, University of Pennsylvania

Keith Purpura, Weill Cornell Medicine

Daniel Crocker, Emerson College

Spencer Kelly, Colgate University

Marty Woldorff, Duke University

Jessica Turner, GSU

Taraz Lee, University of Michigan

Lucas C Parra, City University of New York

Stacey Humphries, University of Pennsylvania

Laurie Cutting, Self

STEPHEN BERRY, Miami University

Daniel Swingley, Univ. of Pennsylvania

Denise Jackson, Northeastern University

Mark VanDam, Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine, Washington State University

Michael Platt, University of Pennsylvania

Susan Lutgendorf, University of Iowa

Pat O'Seaghdha, Lehigh University

Abigail Marsh, Georgetown University

Brenda Rapp, Johns Hopkins UNiversity

Dario Ringach, UCLA

Yolanda Colom, The University of Texas at Dallas

Khena Swallow, Cornell University

Matthew Hoptman, NYU School of Medicine

Dean Mobbs, Caltech

John Gore, Vanderbilt University

Bertrand Delgutte, Massachusetts Eye & Ear

Anne Fulton, Boston Children's Hospital/Harvard Medical School

Winrich Freiwald, The Rockefeller University

Antonio Rangel, California Institute of Technology

Emily Myers, University of Connecticut

Hannah R Snyder, Brandeis University

Ueli Rutishauser, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

Paul Bottomley, Johns Hopkins University

Tytteli Turunen, Research fellow

Michael Epstein, GC CUNY

Victoria L Morgan, Vanderbilt University

Gregory Samanez-Larkin, Duke University

Timothy Allen, Florida International University

Mark W Miller, US Dept of Veterans Affairs

Karen Schloss, University of Wisconsin - Madison

Benjamin Munson, University of Minnesota

Lindsay Bowman, University of California, Davis

Alex Martin, NIMH

Erica Karp, Northwestern University

Morten H Christiansen, Cornell University

Leslie Welch, Brown University

David P Corina PhD, Center for Mind and Brain, Univ. California, Davis

Elizabeth Norton, Northwestern University

Elise Piazza, Princeton University

Andrew Schaumberg, Cornell University

Manasmita Das, UNC Chapel Hill

Michael W Cole, Rutgers University

James Magnuson, University of Connecticut

Andrew, University of Delaware

Douglas Noll, University of Michigan

Michael Scott Worden, Brown University

Shaina Rowell, Washington University

Ken Paller, Northwestern University

Finnegan Calabro, University of Pittsburgh

Cherie Marvel, Johns Hopkins University

Matthew J Wright, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA

Phyllis Summerfelt, MCW

James McGaugh, University of California, Irvine

Anne Michelle Tessier, University of Michigan

Angela Gutchess, Brandeis University

Edward Hubbard, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Miriam Rosenberg-Lee, Rutgers University

Ravi Mill, Rutgers University

Joseph Perkell, Boston University, M.I.T.

Dolly Rojo, The University of Texas at Austin

Pascal Tétreault, University of Alberta

avi aizenman, UC Berkeley

Ozlem Ayduk, University of California, Berkeley

Stephen Hinshaw, University of California, Berkeley

Colin Camerer, Caltech

Heather Lynne Kosakowski, MIT

Paul Fillmore, Baylor University

Charles Perfetti, University of Pittsburgh

Benjamin Wolfe, MIT

Catarina Saiote, University of Minnesota

Russell L Margolis, Dept of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins Univ School of Medicine

Matthew Hall, UMass Dartmouth, Psychology

Martha Farah, University of Pennsylvania

Elizabeth Lorenc, UC Berkeley

Antoine Shahin, University of California

Amanda Bischoff-Grethe, UCSD

Zachariah Reagh, UC Davis

Stefan Leutgeb, University of California, San Diego

John K Hewitt, University of Colorado

R Alison Adcock, Duke University

Alyson Abel Mills, San Diego State University

Richrd Shiffrin, Indiana University

Morgan Parr, University of Iowa

Neil Woodward, VUMC

Ryan Vandrey, Johns Hopkins University

Bruce Berg, University of California Irvine

Carissa Cascio, Vanderbilt University Medical Center

Rita Goldstein, Icahn school of medicine at mount Sinai

Michael Levine, Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

Mary Sweeney, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Annie Umbricht, Johns Hopkins University

William Alaynick, NanoCellect Biomedical, Inc.

Jeremy Schwark, Exponent

Emily Sumner, University of California, Irvine

Leah Somerville, Harvard University

Andrew Leber, The Ohio State University

Douglas Schultz, Rutgers-Newark

Alice Cronin-Golomb, Boston University

Steven J Luck, University of California, Davis

Lucia M Vaina MD PhD, Boston University and Harvard Medical School

Tobias Egner, Duke University

chopin adrien, ucb

Emily Stern, icahn school of medicine at mount sinai

Elise Weerts, Johns Hopkins University

Daniel Simons, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Juliet Davidow, Harvard University

Audrey Fan, Stanford University

Anna Shafer-Skelton, UC San Diego

Marc Sommer, Duke University

Reyna Gordon, Vanderbilt University Medical Center

Francisco Xavier Castellanos, NYU School of Medicine

Michelle Kibby, SIU

Helana Girgis, Hartwick College

Dobromir Rahnev, Georgia Institute of Technology

Lee Miller, University of California, Davis

Drazen Prelec, MIT

Joseph Schmidt, University of Central Florida

Ahmad Hariri, Duke University

Miriam Vélez-Bermúdez, University of Iowa

Steven Weisberg, University of Pennsylvania

Vikram Chib, Johns Hopkins University

John Darrell Van Horn, USC Mark and Mary Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute

Lucas Butler, University of Maryland

Daniela Schiller, Icahn School of Medicine

Tim Meese, Aston University, UK

Ivvy Tso, University of Michigan

Kristen Kennedy, University of Texas at Dallas

Audrey Duarte, Georgia Tech

Rose Scott, University of California Merced

Turhan Canli, Stony Brook University

Doris Tsao, Caltech

Naoshige Uchida, Harvard University

Karen Gamble, University of Alabama at Birmingham

Maheen Shermohammed, Harvard University

Joanne L Miller, Northeastern University

Michael S Gazzaniga, UCSB

Vincent Gracco, Haskins Laboratories

Ian Lyons, Georgetown University

Rao P Gullapalli, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore

Gail Musen, Joslin Diabetes Center

Jessica Uy, UCLA

Barbara Sarnecka, University of California - Irvine

Paul Garcia, assistant professor Emory / Atlanta VA

Dana Boebinger, Harvard University & MIT

Felipe De Brigard, Duke University

Haley Vlach, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Catherine Insel, Harvard University

Marian Berryhill, University of Nevada

Gail Rosenbaum, NYU

Jonathan Levitt, City College of New York

Isabel Gauthier, Vanderbilt University

Simon Lacey, Emory University

Danica Mijovic-Prelec, MIT

Lanya Tianhao Cai, SUNY College of Optometry

Emile Bruneau, University of Pennsylvania

Brennan R Payne, Assistant Professor of Cognition and Neural Science

Melissa Baese-Berk, University of Oregon

Natasha Tokowicz, University of Pittsburgh

Lisa Oakes, UC Davis

Anna Drummey, Villanova University

Leslie zebrowitz, Brandeis university

Erin Conwell, North Dakota State University

Carmen Westerberg, Texas State University

Paul Scotti, The Ohio State University

Christopher Giza, UCLA

Neal Morton, The University of Texas at Austin

Candace Fleischer, Emory University

Cynthia Fisher, University of Illinois

Emily H, Fordham University

Jeffrey C Zemla, University of Wisconsin Madison

Vanessa LoBue, Rutgers University

Gayle Dow, Christopher Newport University

Quan Lei, University of Minnesota

Sharon Noh, University of Texas at Austin

Jarrod Lewis-Peacock, University of Texas at Austin

Mark Does, Vanderbilt University

Reiko Graham, Texas State University

Peter Tse, Dartmouth College

Zheng Ma, The Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute

Derek Pisner, University of Texas at Austin

Benjamin Golub, Harvard University

Grace Lin, University of California, Irvine

Jaime Castrellon, Duke University

Patricia Smiley, Pomona College

Jace King, United States

Todd Braver, Psychological & Brain Sciences Department, Washington University St. Louis

Krista Lisdahl, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Ata Karagoz, University of Texas

Ronald L Cowan, Vanderbilt

Wendy Berry Mendes, UC San Francisco

Adam Aron, UC San Diego

Randolph Blake, Vanderbilt University

Virendra Mishra, Cleveland Clinic

Christine Curcio, University of Alabama at Birmingham

Geoffrey Woodman, Vanderbilt University

Teresa Schubert, Macquarie University

Eric Strain, independent

Amanda H, MIT

Tania Lombrozo, University of California, Berkeley

Rebecca Deason, Texas State University

Idan Blank, MIT

Cynthia Owsley, University of Alabama at Birmingham

Gregory Murphy, New York University

Paige Harden, University of Texas

Arthur Shapiro, American University

Andrew Young, Occidental College

Christopher McNorgan, University at Buffalo - SUNY

Sara Burke, University of Florida

Megan Papesh, Louisiana State University

Duje Tadin, University of Rochester

Rei Akaishi, University of Rochester

Chris Baker, NIH

Mary Peterson, University of Arizona

Leigh Nystrom, Princeton University

Patrick Mayo, Duke University

Sohee Park, Vanderbilt University

Vsevolod Gurevich, Vanderbilt University

Gordon Logan, Vanderbilt University

Jeff Johnson, North Dakota State University

Jonathan Nicholas, Columbia University

Albert Garcia-Romeu, Johns Hopkins Medicine

Gedeon Deak, Univ California, San Diego

Dick Dubbelde, George Washington University

Roger Levy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Heather, PhD student

Steve Most, UNSW Sydney

Susan C Bobb, Gordon College

Mark McCourt, North Dakota State University

Kateri McRae, University of Denver

Deborah Fein, University of Connecticut

Julie Markant, Tulane University

Natalie Brito, NYU

Edward Gibson, MIT

Stephen D Goldinger, Arizona State University

Gideon Paul Caplovitz, University of Nevada Reno

Matthew Lerner, Stony Brook University

Helen Tager-Flusberg, Boston University

Hrag Pailian, Harvard University

Thomas Toppino, Villanova University

Barry Giesbrecht, University of California Santa Barbara

Mason Hanson, University of California, Berkeley

Carrie Bearden, UCLA

Ramesh Srinivasan, University of California, Irvine

Johannes Burge, University of Pennsylvania

Charles Folk, Villanova University

Kim Steele, Johns Hopkins

Aaron Buss, University of Tennessee

Susan Tapert, UC San Diego

Timothy Verstynen, Carnegie Mellon University

Jack Carey, Ohio State

Akira Miyake, University of Colorado Boulder

Lillianna Marie Baczeski, The Ohio State University

Candice Stanfield-Wiswell, George Mason University

Xin Jin, Harvard University

Emily Cibelli, Northwestern University

Lori Holt, Carnegie Mellon University

Steven Greening, Louisiana State University

Karen Rodrigue, University of Texas at Dallas

Laurie Hunter, Christopher Newport University

Letitia Naigles, University of Connecticut

Susan Perlman, University of Pittsburgh

Kenneth Miller, Profesdor, Dept. of Neuroscience, Columbia University

Allison Yamanashi, UC Berkeley

Anna Kosovicheva, Northeastern University

Christine Coughlin, UT Austin

Mark Baxter, Mount Sinai School of Medicine

Mauricio Delgado, Rutgers University

Fred Stoll, Mount Sinai

Holly, Virginia tech

Jack Loomis, University of California, Santa Barbara

Bruce C Hansen, Colgate University

Paula Pacheco, Princeton University

Falk Lieder, UC Berkeley

Patricia Brennan, Emory University

Laura Ligouri, Bates College

Todd Constable, Yale University

Carey Morewedge, Boston University

Jeroen van Boxtel, Monash University

Alexandra Weigand, VA San Diego Healthcare System

Gregory Berns, Emory University

Massimo Fazio, University of Alabama at Birmingham

Karen Seymour, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Michele A Baso, UCLA

Mark Liberman, University of Pennsylvania

James McClelland, Stanford University

Matt sullivan, Mr

April Schweinhart, PIRE

Stella Lourenco, Emory University

Daniel Puhlman, IUP

Philip Sandler, Retired

Jessica Cohen, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Jiefeng Jiang, Stanford University

Noah Haskell Silbert, University of Cincinnati

Ashley Thomas, University of California, Irvine

Scott Miller, University of Florida

Michael Crognale, University of Nevada, Reno

Jay Pillai, Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine

Sara Jaffee, University of Pennsylvania

Andreana Benitez, Medical University of South Carolina

Elif Isbell, UNCG

Erika Wolf, Boston University School of Medicine

Corey Bohil, University of Central Florida

Michael Arcaro, Harvard Medical Schools

Barry Gibney, MUSC

Laura Germine, Harvard Medical School

Erika Forbes, University of Pittsburgh

Soojin Park, Johns Hopkins University

Yashar Ahmadian, University of Oregon

brian hare, Duke University

Aina Puce, Indiana University

Atsushi Takahashi, MIT

Kathy Zhang, Yale University

Sarah cohan, Harvard Medical School

Ben Sajdak, Medical College of Wisconsin

Nadia Chernyak, Boston College

Susan Carnell, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Briana Kennedy, University of Southern California

Joshua D Greene, Harvard University

Jeremy Gray, Knack, Inc

Tim Curran, University of Colorado Boulder

Joel L Steinberg, Virginia Commonwealth University

Scott Vrana, Virginia Commonwealth University

Terri Scott, Boston University

Jon Freeman, New York University

Robert Stout, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation

Brian Scholl, Yale University

Fiery Cushman, Harvard University

Lauren Emberson, Princeton University

Kara Weisman, Stanford University

Mark Pinsk, Princeton University

Heather Urry, Tufts University

Erie Boorman, UC Davis

Carolyn Shivers, Virginia Tech

Frederick Barrett, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Jack Krieger, Georgia Tech, PhD 2017

James Mazer, Montana State University

Ryan Tibshirani, Carnegie Mellon University

Andrea Heberlein, Boston College

Godfrey Pearlson, Yale U SOM

Brice Kuhl, University of Oregon

Evan Gordon, VA VISN17 Center of Excellence for Research on Returning War Veterans

Brianna Pritchett, Georgia Tech

Debbie Thomas, None

Helen Mayberg, Emory University

Carine Maurer, NIH/NINDS

Elizabeth Race, Tufts University

Kenneth Vail, Cleveland State University

Lindsay Hunter, Princeton University

Cecile Ladouceur, University of Pittsburgh

Peter Whitehead, Duke University

John Henderson, University of California, Davis

Amira Ibrahim, University of Michigan

Andrea Weinstein, University of Pittsburgh

Pearl Chiu, Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute

Jean Decety, University of Chicago

Daniel N Klein, Stony Brook University

Anna Leshinskaya, University of Pennsylvania

Spencer Evans, Harvard University

Patrick Palmieri, Summa Health

Teri Burnett, Former NIH postdoc fellow

Kajsa Igelstrom, Princeton University

Meghan Caulfield, Lafayette College

David Ress, Baylor College of Medicine

Sylia Wilson, University of Minnesota

Zeynep Saygin, Ohio State University

Stephan Hamann, Emory University

Tobias Overath, Duke University

Rachel Narr, University of Virginia

Katie Burkhouse, University of Illinois at Chicago

Jessica Schleider, Harvard University

Catherine Hartley, New York University

Laurel J Buxbaum, Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute

Nelson Cowan, University of Missouri

Susan Ravizza, Michigan State University

Gabriel Elias, University of California Irvine

Evangelia Chrysikou, University of Kansas

Elizabeth Kensinger, Boston College

Jeff Sherman, University of California, Davis

Jay Myung, Ohio State University

Irwin D Waldman, Dept of Psychology, Emory University

robert Tibshirani, Stanford University

Maria Jalbrzikowski, University of Pittsburgh

Bonnie Spring PhD, Northwestern University

Robert hamm, Univ of oklahoma health sciences center

Stewart Shankman, University of Illinois at Chicago

Marc Lewis, The University of Texas at Austin

Seth Smith, Vanderbilt Medical Center

Jessica Saurman, University of Colorado Colorado Springs

Julie Campbell, Illinois State University

Irene Kan, Villanova University

Harold Gouzoules, Professor & Chair, Department of Psychology, Emory University

Mark Nawrot, North Dakota State University

Ashley Watts, Emory University

Josh dubnau, Stony Brook university

Madeleine Hackney, Emory University

Rebecca A Lundwall, BYU

Olivia Pereira, Villanova University

Stephen Macknik, SUNY Downstate Medical Center

Karen Wynn, Yale University

Stahn, University of Pennsylvania

CHRISTINA Bass, Research

Jamie Hanson, University of Pittsburgh

Julie Golomb, Ohio State University

Matthew Gallagher, University of Houston

Gerald Haeffel, University of Notre Dame

Lynne Reder, Carnegie Mellon University

Stephen Wilson, Vanderbilt University Medical Center

Charles M Giattino, Duke University

Mikio Aoi, Princeton University

Deanna Barch, Washington University

Cynthia Myers, Iowa State University (retired)

Neil Patrick Jones, University of Pittsburgh

Fernanda Ferreira, University of California, Davis

Eli Peli, Harvard Medical School

Aldo Rosas, Supporter

Margo Monteith, Purdue University

Arielle Borovsky, Purdue University

Damian Stanley, Adelphi university

melissa ferguson, Cornell University

Joshua Brown, Indiana University

Mieke Verfaellie, Boston University

Gerald Davison, University of Southern California

Rachel Thompson, University of Alabama

Matteo Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Dartmouth College

Simon Fischer-Baum, Rice University

Jiangyang Zhang, New York University School of Medicine

Justin Wood, University of Southern California

Rebecca Brand, Villanova University

William Fabricius, Arizona State University

Michael Henry Tessler, Stanford

Benjamin Jee, Worcester State University

Sophie Bridgers, Stanford University

Kimberly Kirkpatrick, Kansas State University

Gaurav Patel, Columbia University

Antonieta Lavin, MUSC

David Smith, Temple University

Lisa Scott, University of Florida

Bonnie Sherman, Indiana University

Christopher R Agnew, Purdue University

Kent Kiehl, University of New Mexico

Cynthia Brenner, Bristol Community College

Eugene Borgida, University of Minnesota/Psychology

Jack Fletcher, University of Houston

Nima Dehghani, MIT

Jelena Krivokapic, University of Michigan

Mac Shine, Stanford University

Brittany Aguilar, Georgetown University

Alytia Levendosky, Michigan State University

Yaroslav Halchenko, Dartmouth College

Tim Vickery, University of Delaware

Tomas Aquino, California Institute of Technology

James Knierim, Johns Hopkins University

Igor Dolgov, New Mexico State University

Jeff Spielberg, University of Delaware

Roxane Cohen Silver, University of California, Irvine

Elizabeth Pantesco, Villanova University

Adam Buchwald, NYU

Daniel Wang, Princeton Neuroscience Institute

Sasen Cain, UC San Diego

Joshua Hartshorne, Boston College

Agnes Ly, University of Delaware

Kara Lowery, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Dominic Fareri, Adelphi University

Nicole Long, University of Oregon

Sandra Cress, Citizen

Qin Qin, Johns Hopkins University

Josh woolley, Ucsf

Divya Subramanian, Duke University

Gaelle Desbordes, Massachusetts General Hospital

Jan Brascamp, Michigan State University

Milton Strauss PhD, Case Western Reserve University

Rhonda Friedman, Georgetown University

Luke Chang, Dartmouth College

Yevgeny Botanov, Millersville University

Marsha Lovett, CMU

Theresa Desrochers, Brown University

Jeremy wilmer, Wellesley College

Chrystal, Cedars Sinai Medical Center

Na Yeon Kim, Princeton University

Hami, Kaiser Permanente

Mike Gerade, None

David Budescu, Fordham University

Ifat Levy, Yale University

M Saxena, John's Hopkins

Kyungmi Kim, Wesleyan University

Kelly Martin, Graduate student

Katherine Martucci, Stanford University

Ilona Kotlewska, Dartmouth College

David Dodell-Feder, McLean Hospital/Harvard Medical School

Rebecca Simons, prefer not to answer

Margaret Keane, Wellesley College

Ann Kring, University of California, Berkeley

Justin Hummer, Ph.D. candidate, clinical science

rae dubow, talking out loud

Marie Banich, University of Colorado Boulder

Erick Gallun, Dept of Veterans Affairs

Anne Germain, U Pittsburgh

Silvia Bunge, University of California at Berkeley

Kara Emery, University of Nevada, Reno

Stephen Flusberg, Purchase College, SUNY

Philip Rubin, Haskins Laboratories

Jessica Witt, Colorado State University

Shan Luo, Univ of Southern California

Simon J Cropper, University of Melbourne, Australia

Laura Castro, teacher and citizen

Thomas Yeo, National University of Singapore

Charles Geier, Pennsylvania State University

Jacqueline Snow, University of Nevada, Reno

Sunil Puria, HMS

Dima Ayyash, MIT

Patricia Reeder, Gustavus Adolphus College

David Russell Richie, University of Connecticut

Sarah Creem-Regehr, University of Utah

Jeffrey Yau, Baylor College of Medicine

Terrie Moffitt, duke university

Hannah Kalman, University of Houston

Tor Wager, University of Colorado

S Levi, NYU

Emily Ward, University of Wisconsin - Madison

Gary Lupyan, University of Wisconsin-Madison

J Bruce Overmier, University of Minnesota

Sam Nastase, Dartmouth College

David Baranger, Washington University in St Louis

Brian Wang, UC Berkeley

Mai-Ly Steers, University of Houston

Matt Dye, Rochester Institute of Technology

Lauren Bylsma, University of Pittsburgh

Rechele Brooks, University of Washington

Christopher Moore, Brown University

Jennifer Silvers, UCLA

Peter Sokol-Hessner, University of Denver

Ina Percival, Public Health

Sara Webb, University of Washington

Elizabeth A L Stine-Morrow, University of Illinois

John Desmond, John's Hopkins University

Martin Zettersten, University of Wisconsin-Madison

James Elliott, University of California Santa Barbara

Vincent van Veen, Diablo Valley College

Tanya Evans, Stanford University

Lauren Hecht, Gustavus Adolphus College

Daniel Lurie, University of California, Berkeley

Adam Greenberg, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Sarah Paterson, Dept Psychology, Temple University

Johan Lundstrom, Monell Chemical Senses Center

Jennifer Graham-Engeland, Penn State University

Scott McAuley, Angel City Press

Dylan Wagner, The Ohio State University

Mary MacLean, University of California Santa Barbara

Christine Liu, UC Berkeley

William Bentley, Washington University

Kendra Seaman, Duke University

Gleb Shumyatsky, Rutgers University

Clayton Mosher, Cedars-Sinai

Michael Evans, UCSF

Robert Chavez, University of Oregon

Sherry Pagoto, University of Connecticut

Kevin Miller, Princeton University

Randall Potts, None

Claire scavuzzo, University of alberta

Spencer Bujarski, UCLA

Natalia Vélez, Stanford University

Orin Harris, Northeastern Illinois University

julian fernandez, syracuse university

Professor Uri Hasson, Princeton University

Christine Payne, NYU

Solena Mednicoff, UC Irvine

Shabnam Hakimi, Duke University

Hakwan Lau, UCLA

Samuel D McDougle, Princeton University

Sam Pfaff, Prolynx LLC

Julien Besle, American University of Beirut

Randall O'Reilly, University of Colorado Boulder

Sandra Weintraub, Northwestern University

Tal Yarkoni, University of Texas at Austin

Jan Drugowitsch, Harvard Medical School

Michael Lombardo, University of Cyprus

Timothy J Pleskac, Max Planck Institute for Human Development

Barbara Braams, Harvard

Jessica Andrews-Hanna, University of Arizona

Lars Kasper, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich

Mark Lescroart, UC Berkeley

Brian Junker, Carnegie Mellon University

Dara Ghahremani, UCLA

Harald Möller, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences

Roger Watt, University of Stirling

Danielle McNamara, Arizona State University

Hugh Garavan, University of Vermont

Pavla Francová, Center for Advanced Preclinical Imaging (CAPI), Prague, Czech Repblic, Europe

Mathias Pessiglione, Inserm, France

Jay Edelman, The City College of New York

Gene Stoner, Salk Institute

Matthias Fritsche, Donders

Mark Greenlee, University of Regensburg

Elizabeth Blum, Unaffiliated

Naftali Raz, Wayne State University

Michel Thiebaut de Schotten, BCBlab

Henry L Walters, Children's Hospital of Michigan

Gary Henderson, Self

Laura Niemi, Duke University

Claire Sergent, Université Paris Descartes

Marlene Oscar Berman, Boston University School of Medicine

Pamela Jackson, Radford University

Louis Shomette, Psychonomic Society

Brent Harris, Georgetown University

Peter Marshall, Temple University

Tom Beckers, KU Leuven

Jeremy Teman, UC Berkeley

Caspar M Schwiedrzik, European Neuroscience Institute Göttingen

Benedikt A Poser, Maastricht University

Patricia Reuter-Lorenz, University of Michigan

Leandro Siqueira Carvalho, University of Southern California`

Stuart Marcovitch, University of North Carolina at Greensboro

John S Werner, University of California, Davis Medical Center

Aaron Wong, MossRehab Research Institute

Katie Von Holzen, Université Paris Descartes

Mara Breen, Mount Holyoke College

Nan Genther, Quality and Outcomes

Christian Schunn, University of Pittsburgh

Lilla Zollei, MGH

Tamara Hershey, Washington University

Bradford Mahon, University of Rochester

Tamas Madl, University of Memphis

Harlan Fichtenholtz, Keene State College

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