We, the undersigned resolve the following: 1. The joint Declaration of Independence (1776) by thirteen colonies created free, independent and sovereign states. 2. The Treaty of Paris (1783) reaffirmed the sovereignty and independence of the original thirteen states. Furthermore that treaty is evidence of international recognition of these thirteen states taking their place among the nations of the world. 3. The United States of America (Federal Government) was born in 1789 with the ratification of the Constitution by free and independent states. 4. The Federal Government was delegated certain and specific powers and duties under The Constitution (Articles I-IV). All other powers, rights and duties are reserved to the States or the People (10th Amendment). 5. The compact that created the Federal Government is akin to a contract, the States and the Federal Government have certain specified responsibilities and certain specified rights; a violation of these rights or a failure to perform specified duties makes the contract nullifiable and voidable. 6. Forty-eight States of the Union joined the compact of their free will; never intending expressly or by implication to surrender powers or rights not clearly outlined in The Constitution. 7. The Constitution is silent on the issue of a state withdrawing from the Union. Unlike the previous Articles of Confederation there is no mention of a
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